全国客服电话
400-100-1567
English
其他官网入口
行业动态
NEWS
首页 > 新闻中心 > 行业动态
当前位置:首页 > 新闻中心 > 行业动态
亚博vip 2020-无神论者占比最高的欧洲国家,捷克人为什么不信宗教?​
发布时间:2021-09-09 02:25:01

Europe is the stronghold of Christianity. Catholicism, Eastern Orthodox and Protestantism all evolved from Christianity. The culture, festivals and customs of Europeans, and even the formation of certain ethnic groups and the boundaries of the country, are deeply influenced by religion.

欧洲是基督教的据点。天主教,东正教和新教都从基督教演变而来。欧洲人的文化,节日和习俗,甚至某些民族的形成和国家边界,都深受宗教的影响。

For Europeans in the Middle Ages, religious beliefs were as indispensable as air and water. To this day, religion still affects all aspects of European life, such as naming, marriage, etc. The proportion of religious believers in some countries is as high as 90%.

对于中世纪的欧洲人而言,宗教信仰与空气和水一样不可或缺。时至今日,宗教仍然影响着欧洲生活的方方面面,例如命名,婚姻等。在某些国家,宗教信徒的比例高达90%。

However, according to various surveys, the Czech Republic is the least religious country in Europe. Nearly 80% of Czechs claim to be atheists. Why are Czechs not religious?

但是,根据各种调查,捷克共和国是欧洲宗教最少的国家。近80%的捷克人声称自己是无神论者。为什么捷克人不信教?

The Czechs belonged to the West Slavs, the one who ran the farthest westward during the great migration of the Slavic nation. They moved into the Bohemian Plateau, which is surrounded by mountains on three sides, and the land is fertile and densely covered with hills, which is very suitable for farming, so they settled here.

捷克人属于西斯拉夫人,这是斯拉夫民族大迁徙期间向西走得最远的人。他们搬进了波西米亚高原,波西米亚高原三面环山,土地肥沃,山峦密布,非常适合耕种,因此定居于此。

However, it belonged to the Frankish kingdom established by the Germans, who called the land on the edge of the empire "Bohemia." Although the Czechs were large in number, they were still in a backward clan society and were soon conquered by the Germans.

但是,它属于德国人建立的法兰克王国,法兰克人称帝国边缘的土地为“波希米亚”。尽管捷克人数量众多,但他们仍处于落后的氏族社会,并很快被德国人征服。

It was not until 867 that the Czechs established their own dynasty, the Pshemes Dynasty. The king inherited the blood of Czech peasants and Germanic nobles, and belonged to the Frankish kingdom. This dynasty is therefore regarded as the birthplace of the Czech nation.

直到867年,捷克人才建立了自己的王朝(Pshemes王朝)yabo2021。国王继承了捷克农民和日耳曼贵族的血统,属于法兰克王国。因此,这个王朝被视为捷克民族的发祥地。

At this time, the Frankish kingdom split into three parts, and Germany and Austria belonged to the East Frankish kingdom. The Czech Republic happens to be between these two parts, and it is also the border zone between the Germans and the Slavs. The geographical location is very important and it is more convenient for the rule of the two main Germanic parts.

此时,法兰克王国分为三个部分,德国和奥地利属于东法兰克王国。捷克共和国恰好位于这两部分之间,它也是德国人和斯拉夫人之间的边界地区。地理位置非常重要,对于两个主要日耳曼地区的统治来说,地理位置更加便利。

Although the Czech Republic is the only country in the empire dominated by Slavs, the East Franconian Kingdom and the successor Holy Roman Empire still attach great importance to the rule of the Czech region. Prague once became the capital of the empire and the center of culture and religion.

尽管捷克共和国是帝国中唯一由斯拉夫人统治的国家,但东法兰克王国和后继神圣罗马帝国仍然非常重视捷克地区的统治。布拉格曾经成为帝国的首都和文化与宗教的中心。

The Czech king was not only one of the electors, but was also elected as the imperial emperor. For most of the time, the Czech king had a very close relationship with the emperor, and his political status was actually higher than that of the general German state.

捷克国王不仅是选举人之一,还当选为皇帝。在大多数时间里,捷克国王与皇帝之间的关系非常密切,他的政治地位实际上比德国大国高。

In addition to political and economic means, the Germans also strengthened their religious control over the Czechs and required them to believe in Christianity. The Czechs, like other Slavic peoples, initially believed in their own polytheism.

除政治和经济手段外,德国人还加强了对捷克人的宗教控制,并要求他们信仰基督教。像其他斯拉夫民族一样,捷克人最初相信自己的多神教。

In 1054, due to doctrinal differences and language barriers, Christianity split into the Catholic Church represented by Rome and the Orthodox Church represented by Byzantium. Eastern Slavs and Yugoslavs chose the Orthodox Church. The Western Slavs included Poland and the Czech Republic. Under the influence or persecution of the Germans, they believed in Roman Catholicism and parted ways with the Slav brothers.

在1054年,由于教义上的差异和语言障碍,基督教分裂成以罗马为代表的天主教堂和以拜占庭为代表的东正教教堂。东斯拉夫人和南斯拉夫选择了东正教教堂。西斯拉夫人包括波兰和捷克共和国。在德国人的影响或迫害下,他们信仰罗马天主教,并与斯拉夫兄弟分道扬ways。

Medieval Europe was immersed in religious enthusiasm. Religion ruled people's thoughts and guided almost all behaviors from life to death. From the imperial king to the farmer, they are all ready to dedicate themselves to the faith. Within the Holy Roman Empire, the real power and influence of the Holy See surpassed the emperor.

中世纪的欧洲沉迷于宗教热情。宗教统治着人们的思想,几乎指导着从生到死的所有行为。从帝国国王到农民,他们都准备献身于信仰。在罗马帝国内,罗马教廷的真正力量和影响力超过了皇帝。

This empire is not a top-down centralized state, and it is reluctant to even call it an "empire". It is more like a loose alliance of many political entities. Each state within the empire has independent diplomatic power and armies. There is no need to pay taxes to the empire, just surrender to the emperor in name.

这个帝国不是自上而下的集中国家,甚至都不愿称其为“帝国”。它更像是许多政治实体的松散联盟。帝国内的每个国家都有独立的外交权和军队。无需向帝国缴税,只需向皇帝降服即可。

In addition to having a large number of direct territories throughout the empire, the Holy See also controls the coronation of emperors and princes. Without the approval of the Holy See, they cannot become legal emperors and kings. In order to please the Holy See, the princes must provide a large amount of money every year.

罗马教廷除了在整个帝国中拥有大量直接领土外,还控制着皇帝和王子的加冕礼。没有罗马教廷的批准,他们就不能成为合法的皇帝和国王。为了取悦罗马教廷,王子每年必须提供大量金钱。

During this period, the Holy Roman Empire was called the "Pope’s Cow", and huge wealth continued to flow to the Holy See. Of course, these wealth will not come from the German lords' own pockets, but they are all raided from the bottom Czechs.

在此期间,神圣罗马帝国被称为“教皇的母牛”,巨大的财富继续流向罗马教廷。当然,这些财富不会来自德国领主自己的口袋,而是全部从最底层的捷克人手中搜查而来。

At the same time, a large number of Germans immigrated to the Czech region, and with the encouragement and support of the lords, they seized the most fertile land in the Czech Republic, turned the Czechs into their own tenant farmers, and stepped up their exploitation. According to estimates, more than two-thirds of the Czech Republic's land was owned by the Germans.

同时,大量德国人移民到捷克地区,在领主的鼓励和支持下,他们占领了捷克共和国最肥沃的土地,将捷克人变成了自己的ten农,并加强了自己的their农。开发。据估计,捷克共和国三分之二以上的土地归德国人所有。

On the other hand, Czech merchants and farmers have to pay various taxes to the Czech church. The Czech church is dominated by Germans in middle and high-level positions. Czechs can only hold grass-roots teaching positions, but they have great influence on the people.

另一方面,捷克商人和农民必须向捷克教堂缴纳各种税款。捷克教会由中高级职位的德国人主导。捷克人只能担任基层教职,但对人民影响很大。

Under this endless double squeeze, Czech religious figures represented by Jan Hus finally put forward a request for religious reform to the Holy See and the Czech church in 1415, allowing the Czech Bible to preach in the Czech region. Criticize the church for using "indulgences" to consolidate money.

在这种无休止的双重挤压下,以扬·胡斯(Jan Hus)为代表的捷克宗教人物终于在1415年向罗马教廷和捷克教会提出了宗教改革的要求,从而使《捷克圣经》在捷克地区宣讲。批评教会使用“放纵”来巩固金钱。

This is the first time in European history to challenge the authority of the Holy See. It was more than a hundred years before Martin Luther. Before that, no one had dared to question the Holy See publicly. The Czechs also paid a huge price for this.

这是欧洲历史上第一次挑战罗马教廷的权威。距马丁·路德(Martin Luther)已有一百多年。在此之前,没有人敢公开质疑罗马教廷。捷克人为此付出了巨大的代价。

This reform request was regarded as heresy by the Holy See, and Jan Hus was trapped and executed by fire, which aroused the anger of the Czech people. From the nobles to the common people, they have expressed their break with the Holy See and established another school. They are called Hussites.

罗马教廷将此改革要求视为异端,扬·胡斯被火困住并处决,激起了捷克人民的愤怒。从贵族到平民百姓,他们都与罗马教廷决裂,并建立了另一所学校。他们被称为胡斯特人。

During the confrontation with the Holy See, the Hussites launched a series of riots, attacking Catholic facilities and related figures representing the Holy See. The emperor and the Holy See immediately used force to suppress the Hussites and their troops. Unexpectedly, the Hussite army faced the Catholic army from more than half of Europe and won repeatedly. They persisted for 14 years before being suppressed because of the Hussite infighting.

在与罗马教廷的对峙中,胡斯特人发动了一系列骚乱,袭击了代表罗马教廷的天主教设施和相关人物。皇帝和罗马教廷立即使用武力镇压胡塞人及其军队。出乎意料的是,胡斯特军队与欧洲一半以上的天主教徒面对,并屡屡获胜。他们坚持了14年,之后因胡斯派的内斗而被镇压。

Even so, the Holy See still had to make a compromise and allowed to retain part of the religious rights advocated by the Hussites in the main regions of the Czech Republic. This was the first time in the history of the Holy See. The Czechs retained some of the fruits of the victory of the Reformation.

即使这样,罗马教廷仍必须做出妥协,并允许保留在捷克共和国主要地区的胡斯特人所倡导的部分宗教权利。这是罗马教廷历史上的第一次。捷克人保留了宗教改革胜利的一些成果。

More importantly, the Hussite War greatly enhanced the national identity and pride of the Czech people, and the rights of the king and the church were severely weakened. The Catholic army regarded the Hussites as infidels and wanted to kill and insult them, making the Czechs hate the Catholic Church.

更重要的是,胡斯战争(Hussite War)极大地增强了捷克人民的民族认同感和自豪感,国王和教堂的权利也被严重削弱。天主教军视胡斯人为异教徒,并想杀害和侮辱他们,这使捷克人讨厌天主教。

This war showed the Czech people’s persistence in their faith. While they believed in Catholicism, they dared to challenge the mistakes of the Holy See and defend their ideals with their lives. It can be said that the Czechs no longer blindly worshiped authority after the Hussite War, and began to look at the world with their own eyes.

这场战争表明捷克人民坚守自己的信仰。当他们信仰天主教时,他们敢于挑战罗马教廷的错误,并一生捍卫自己的理想。可以说,在胡斯战争之后,捷克人不再盲目崇拜权威,而是开始用自己的眼睛看世界。

About a century later, the corruption and rigidity of the Holy See finally aroused more people's opposition. Under the call of Martin Luther, the German region of the Holy Roman Empire also raised the voice of religious reform. The main result of this religious reform was the split of Protestantism from the Catholic Church. Protestantism preached that everyone can talk to God without going through the Holy See.

大约一个世纪后,罗马教廷的腐败和僵化终于引起了更多人的反对。在马丁·路德(Martin Luther)的呼吁下,神圣罗马帝国的德国地区也发出了宗教改革的声音。这项宗教改革的主要结果是新教与天主教分离。新教宣扬,每个人都可以不经过罗马教廷而与上帝交谈。

The idea of ​​Protestantism is more advanced than that of the Hussites and can completely get rid of the oppression of the Catholic Church, so the Czechs responded very positively. Historians believe that by the beginning of the 17th century, most Czechs had become Protestants.

新教的思想比胡塞教派的思想更先进,可以完全摆脱天主教的压迫,因此捷克人做出了非常积极的回应。历史学家相信,到17世纪初,大多数捷克人已成为新教徒。

Not only that, in the German region, which was deeply squeezed by the Holy See, there were also many princes who accepted Protestantism, forming a powerful force and possessing the strength to fight against the princes of the Catholic Church. But at this time, the Czech throne fell into the hands of the Catholic Habsburg family.

不仅如此,在受到罗马教廷强烈挤压的德国地区,还有许多王子接受了新教,形成了强大的力量并拥有与天主教王子作斗争的力量。但是此时,捷克王位落入了天主教哈布斯堡王朝家族的手中。

Habsburg is an ancient Germanic family that originated in Switzerland. It was elected as the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 1273 and obtained the hereditary throne of Austria. In 1526, Ferdinand I of Habsburg became king of the Czech Republic due to his marriage.

哈布斯堡王朝是一个古老的日耳曼家族,起源于瑞士。它于1273年当选为神圣罗马帝国的皇帝,并获得了奥地利的世袭宝座。 1526年,哈布斯堡王朝的斐迪南一世因结婚而成为捷克共和国国王。

In order to make the Habsburg family the hereditary king of the Czech Republic, Ferdinand I vigorously strengthened the royal power and weakened the local power. Moreover, he only allowed the spread of Catholicism in the Czech Republic. Protestants must change their beliefs.

为了使哈布斯堡一家成为捷克共和国的世袭国王,费迪南德一世大力加强了王室权力,削弱了地方政权。此外,他只允许天主教在捷克共和国传播。新教徒必须改变信仰。

The conflict between Catholics and Protestants has never been interrupted, and reached its climax in 1618. The citizens of Prague revolted against the Holy See in public. Habsburg sent troops to suppress it, igniting a new religious war.

天主教徒与新教徒之间的冲突从未间断过,并在1618年达到了高潮。布拉格的市民在公开场合反抗罗马教廷。哈布斯堡王朝(Habsburg)出兵镇压,引发了一场新的宗教战争。

The Czechs are not alone this time. The Protestant princes of Germany all expressed their support for the Czech Protestants, and the Catholic princes of Germany sided with Habsburg, making the war ignited by the Czech Republic quickly become German. civil war.

这次,捷克人并不孤单。德国的新教王子都表示支持捷克新教徒,而德国的天主教王子则站在哈布斯堡王朝旁边,使捷克共和国引发的战争迅速成为德国人。内战。

Immediately afterwards, Protestant Britain and Sweden, Catholic Poland, and Orthodox Russia were all involved in the war. However, religion is not the only criterion for distinguishing the enemy from ourselves. France is a Catholic country, but it has joined the Protestant Union. Because the French did not want to see Germany's unification, the dominant Habsburgs and Catholic princes became the targets of the French.

此后不久,新教英国和瑞典,天主教波兰和东正教俄罗斯都卷入了战争。但是,宗教并不是区分敌人和我们自己的唯一标准。法国是一个天主教国家,但已经加入了新教联盟。因为法国人不想看到德国统一,所以占统治地位的哈布斯堡王朝和天主教王子成了法国人的目标。

The scale and duration of this war far exceeded the Hussite War, and it can be said to be a European war. Religious conflicts and geopolitical interests are intertwined, and the war lasted for thirty years, so it was called the "Thirty Years War."

这场战争的规模和持续时间远远超过了Hussite战争,可以说是欧洲战争。宗教冲突和地缘政治利益交织在一起,战争持续了三十年,因此被称为“三十年战争”。

As the German region was the main battlefield, it was extremely severely damaged. According to post-war statistics, the adult male death rate in some parts of Germany reached more than 60%, and the Czech Republic also exceeded 30%. Both towns and villages have been devastated.

由于德国地区是主要战场,因此遭到了严重破坏。根据战后统计,德国某些地区的成年男性死亡率达到60%以上,捷克共和国也超过了30%。城镇和乡村都遭到了破坏。

As a result of the war, Habsburg recognized the equal status of Catholicism and Protestantism, and lost a lot of territory and compensation. The power of Habsburg has since been restricted to regions such as Austria and the Czech Republic, and the Holy Roman Empire exists in name only.

由于战争,哈布斯堡王朝承认天主教和新教的同等地位,并失去了许多领土和补偿。此后,哈布斯堡王朝的权力一直局限于奥地利和捷克共和国等地区,而神圣罗马帝国仅是名义上存在。

The Czech Republic was the fuse of the Thirty Years' War and one of the countries that suffered the most. Although Protestantism finally achieved equal status, the brutal war caused a sharp decline in the population of the Czech Republic, and the number of Protestants was greatly reduced.

捷克共和国是三十年战争的导火索,也是受害最重的国家之一。尽管新教最终获得同等地位,但残酷的战争导致捷克共和国的人口急剧减少,新教徒的人数大大减少。

The surviving Czechs began to reflect that the two religious wars won their freedom of belief, but why did they pay such a heavy price? Are these wars really worth it? The Czechs became pessimistic about religion.

幸存的捷克人开始反映出两次宗教战争赢得了信仰自由,但是为什么要付出如此沉重的代价呢?这些战争真的值得吗?捷克人对宗教感到悲观。

Due to the repeated seesaw of the war, both Protestants and Catholics will be persecuted and killed by the other side, and there is almost no safe place. Therefore, many Czechs are no longer willing to disclose their religious beliefs, just to survive in troubled times.

由于战争的反复跷跷板,新教徒和天主教徒都将受到对方的迫害和杀害,几乎没有安全的地方。因此,许多捷克人不再愿意透露自己的宗教信仰,只是为了在困难时期生存。

In the next 100 years, Habsburg was inconvenient to carry out religious persecution of the Czechs, so it intensified its economic search. 70% of the annual income of Czech farmers had to be handed over to the landlord and the country, and life became increasingly difficult. , A slight natural disaster is a large-scale famine.

在接下来的100年里,哈布斯堡王朝(Habsburg)不方yabo2021便对捷克人进行宗教迫害,因此加紧了对经济的搜索。捷克农民的年收入的70%必须移交给房东和国家,生活变得越来越困难。 ,轻微的自然灾害是大规模的饥荒。

The hatred of the Czechs towards Habsburg is deepening. Catholicism is also regarded as a symbol of Habsburg’s oppression of their own nation. It is disgusted by the Czechs and mainly exists among the Germans from Austria.

捷克人对哈布斯堡堡的仇恨正在加深。天主教也被视为哈布斯堡王朝压迫自己国家的象征。它受到捷克人的反感,主要存在于奥地利的德国人中。

In this way, the Czechs, who pioneered the religious reform and experienced two religious wars, became the least religious country in Europe. Most people who are willing to dedicate their lives to religion have already given their lives for the faith. For ordinary people who just want to survive, it may be the right choice to stay away from religious fanaticism.

这样,率先进行宗教改革并经历两次宗教战争的捷克人成为欧洲宗教最少的国家。大多数愿意献身于宗教的人已经为信仰献出了生命。对于只想生存的普通人来说,远离宗教狂热也许是正确的选择。

In 1806, under the attack of Napoleon, the Holy Roman Empire disintegrated, and Habsburg retained only Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary and other regions and became the Austrian Empire. In 1867, in order to appease Hungary, which was striving for independence, the Austrian Empire transformed into the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In the Prussian-Prussian War that broke out in 1866, Austria was defeated by Prussia and would never interfere in German affairs.

1806年,在拿破仑的袭击下,神圣罗马帝国解体,哈布斯堡王朝只保留了奥地利,捷克共和国,匈牙利和其他地区,成为奥地利帝国。 1867年,为了安抚争取独立的匈牙利,奥地利帝国转变为奥匈帝国。在1866年爆发的普鲁战争中,奥地利被普鲁士击败,永远不会干涉德国事务。

When Habsburg was busy with foreign affairs, the Czechs were immersed in the economy. Because most of the land was occupied by Germanic nobles, coupled with their indifference to religion, the Czechs were more receptive to ideological enlightenment and advanced science and technology, and developed industries were established early. In the mid-19th century, the industrial level of the Czech Republic had surpassed that of Austria.

当哈布斯堡宫(Habsburg)忙于外交事务时,捷克人沉迷于经济。由于大部分土地都被日耳曼贵族占领,加上他们对宗教漠不关心,捷克人更容易接受意识形态的启蒙和先进的科学技术,因此发达的产业得以早日建立。在19世纪中叶,捷克共和国的工业水平超过了奥地利。

At the end of the First World War in 1918, the Czechs took advantage of the defeat and collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire to become independent with Slovakia, a brother nation under Hungarian rule, and established a republic. There are more than 7 million Czechs and more than 2 million Slovaks. Since the Czech Republic was ruled by Germans for thousands of years, there are more than 3 million Germanic immigrants and descendants in its territory.

在1918年第一次世界大战结束时,捷克人利用奥匈帝国的失败与瓦解,与匈牙利统治下的兄弟国家斯洛伐克独立,建立了共和国。有超过700万捷克人和200万斯洛伐克人。由于捷克共和国由德国人统治了数千年,因此在其领土上有超过300万德国人移民和后裔。

After World War II, most Germans moved or were driven out of the Czech Republic. In 1993, the Czech Republic and Slovakia broke up peacefully. The Czech Republic has finally become a country with a relatively single ethnic composition, and the proportion of people who are not religious has become clear.

第二次世界大战后,大多数德国人迁徙或yabo2021被驱逐出捷克共和国。 1993年,捷克共和国和斯洛伐克和平分手。捷克共和国终于成为一个种族组成相对单一的国家,而且非宗教人士的比例也很明确。

From the perspective of European history, the two large-scale religious wars started in the Czech Republic, and there is probably no nation that is more brave to fight for religious beliefs than the Czechs. Due to special historical reasons, the Czech Republic still retains many European churches and buildings in ancient and medieval styles.

从欧洲历史的角度来看,两次大规模的宗教战争始于捷克共和国,也许没有哪个国家比捷克人更勇于为宗教信仰而战。由于特殊的历史原因,捷克共和国仍然保留了许多欧洲的古老和中世纪风格的教堂和建筑。

But on the spiritual level, the Czechs are no longer interested in religion, leaving only these gorgeous buildings as if to tell the glory and history of blood and tears of the Czechs.

但是在精神层面上,捷克人不再对宗教感兴趣,只留下这些华丽的建筑,仿佛在诉说捷克人流血和眼泪的荣耀和历史。

History enthusiast

历史爱好者

Graduate of London School of Economics and Political Science | Chief Editor of Global Intelligence Officer

伦敦政治经济学院毕业生|全球情报干事总编辑

上一条:yabo2021_两年前的今天,约基奇11投全中得到35分11篮板11助攻 下一条:yabo2021_小基恩:我本有机会重回尤文,但最终还是决定前往巴黎
全国客服电话:400-100-1567

关注我们有惊喜